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And Bartholomaeus von Unkel used the subject in the Cologne Bible of 1478 (WEHMER et al., 1971; fig. John’ as markers of the pivotal point in the European cultural history.
301 – The four apocalyptic horsemen from the ‘Revelations of St.
297 – The Lamb, Christ and the opening of the Seven Seals. The first vellums were written in 776, and a second version was made in 784 AD. 298 – A copy of the Beatus’ ‘Commentaries on the Apocalypse’ from the cloister of Santo Domingo de Silos in Spain. The manuscript was acquired in 1840 by the British Museum in Londen (The British Library Add. The four (apocalyptic) horses are part of the story, and there are other tetradic features in decorations as well (fig. In particular, the ‘Arca testamenti’, with its quadrifoil, was a recurring motif.
They provided an early example of the four horses as a sign of the end of times (fig.
They represent war, famine, illness and death as the powers, which destroy mankind.
The quaternion is activated within the context of dualistic thinking: the four horsemen are the negative figures contrasting with the benevolent archangel-guardians of the four directions.
COHN (1970) attributed ‘salvationism’ with the following qualities: collectivism, an earthly character, the immanence (the expectation of events happening at short notice), the universal and the miraculous.
The ‘European mind’ must have been far too diverse at the time to pay attention to such an absolute event. And there went out another horse that was red: and power was given to him that sat thereon to take peace from the earth and that they should kill one another: and there was given unto him a great sword.
Creation and its mythological symbolism are the beginning and the apocalypse and its consequences mark the end.
The idea of an afterlife contributed to the absolute character of the division.
303 – From the ‘Kölner Bible’ of Bartholomaeus von Unkel, around 1478.
It is, nevertheless, an interesting feature that the idea of an apocalypse – as a culmination of linear thinking – shifted its emphasis from a spiritual to a physical base, from God to iridium. So the actual happening of a worldwide catastrophe within our lifespan is remote.