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The researchers found muscle mass has redistributed itself from the upper limbs to the lower limbs as our ancestors evolved.While orangutans, the only remaining species in the genus Pongo, have large amounts of upper body muscle and little lower body muscle, species closer to our own have larger leg muscles The researchers studied bonobos, like the one above, because they are our closest living cousins.By comparing their bodies to modern humans, scientists can attempt to fill in some of the gaps left in the fossil record.Just 15% of bodies - the bones - are fossilised while soft tissue which make up 85% are lost'As the early Homo species expanded out of Africa, the ability to put on, store, and mobilize body fat provided a clear adaptive advantage for both females and males as a backup against extremes of food availability in a variety of environments, as well as mitigating adverse effects on pregnancy and lactation in females.
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By comparison the hair, muscle, skin and fat make up 85 per cent of the body.
These are rarely preserved in fossils and there is just one suspected skin sample thought to exist in all of the early human fossils discovered so far.
sapiens, they probably needed additional body fat, in the range of 12–14%.'The researchers, whose work is published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, dissected 13 bonobos that had died of natural causes and measured their levels of muscle, fat and skin.
Female Australopithecines, like in the family shown in the reconstruction above, may have been the first early humans to put on body fat to help them reproduce and provide for their offspring during lean periods Seasonal variation in food combined with our ancestors move towards becoming highly nomadic creatures that walked several miles a day through unpredictable environments probably drove this need to store fat, Professor Zihlman and her colleagues claim.
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